Flowering of Mango
Mango flowering is affected by many internal factors. A proportion of perfect below 1% could seriously hinder fertilization and subsequent fruit set, but the proportion can be improved by exogenous application of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (200 ppm) at flower bud differentiation.
The nature of flower production in mango is a complex phenomenon and has been investigated on the basis of two physiological theories.
The plant nutrition theory was considered inadequate to explain fruit bud differentiation in mango.
Secondly, a lot of speculative studies were conducted in mango on the release of specific flowering hormone by leaves without any specific success.
However, it was observed that excessive fruiting in the previous year, and unsuitable pruning and fertilization practices may delay the emergence of flushes and may be detrimental to the number of panicles and the bearing capacity of the flushes the following year.
It seems that photoperiodism and thermoperiodism play an important role in controlling g flowering in mango.
Although flower bud differentiation in mango takes place during the short days in the fall off season flowering during June was also observed near equator.
Hence, mango cannot be characterized as a short or long day plant unless a critical day length is found
It is well known that the Neelum variety of mango produces two crops a year in Kanyakumari in South India but flowers only once in North Indian conditions.
Experts found a lower percentage of hermaphrodite flowers on the eastern side of the tree, which gets more sunlight, and the highest on the north side. Shade tends to prevent and delay the formation of fruit buds.
Climatic conditions have significant influence on the time of flowering in mango.
In India flowering starts from December in the South, January in Bihar and Bengal, and February in eastern Uttar Pradesh, and in February-March in northern India.
The duration of flowering is 20-25 days in Dashehari, while panicle emergence occurs in early December and flower opening is completed by February.
Late flowering opening and subsequent fruit setting may lead to exposure to excessive heat, resulting in premature death of the ovary. Most of the varieties in northern India suffer from biennial/alternate bearing.
The fruiting in “on” and “off” years could vary according to variety, but in Dashehari the ration could well be 60:40.
Flowering of Mango
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