Mango is one of the popular fruits in the world due to its attractive color, delicious taste and excellent nutritional properties. Known for its sweet fragrance and flavor, the mango has delighted the senses for more than 4000 years. A celebrated fruit, mango, now produced in most of the tropical parts of the globe.

Monday, May 9, 2022

Xanthophylls in mangoes

Carotenoids are plant pigments commonly found in fruits and vegetables. The two classes of carotenoids are carotenes and xanthophylls, which are oxygenated derivatives. Mangoes contain both carotenes (provitamin A carotenoids) and xanthophylls.

*Provitamin A carotenoids(carotenes) such as α-carotene, β-carotene, and γ-carotene; and *Oxygenated carotenoids(xanthophylls) such as β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, auroxanthin, and neoxanthin.

Xanthophylls are found in all young leaves and in etiolated leaves. They have oxygen molecule extra in addition to carbon and hydrogen, are termed xanthophylls.

Carotenoid composition and concentration in fruits is influenced by genetic and environmental factors, such as: cultivar, maturity, climate, geographic area, processing and storage.

During early in ripening xanthophylls are predominant. During later in ripening β, α, ζ, and γ-carotenes are predominant.

The major xanthophyll present in the unripe mango was mutatoxanthin (9.44%), whereas auroxanthin constituted the major hydroxylated carotenoid of the partially ripe (5.07%) and fully ripe (10.40%) mangoes.

In human body xanthophylls are exclusively transported intact through the blood via lipoproteins and are taken up by tissues via membrane-bound lipid transporters. Very small amounts of the cleavage products of lutein and zeaxanthin are present in human plasma and are called “apocarotenoids”.
Xanthophylls in mangoes

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